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Look for the icon in the video player control bar to enable closed captions. Currently offered in English only. Please email us at support mindbodygreen. It became a major trading center under the Dutch colonial government and hosted the most extensive naval base in the colony. Surabaya was also the largest city in the colony serving as the center of Java's plantation economy, industry and was supported by its natural harbor. In , a revolt occurred among the soldiers and sailors of Surabaya, led by the Indies Social Democratic Association.
The revolt was firmly crushed, and the insurgents were given harsh sentences. Japan occupied the city in , as part of the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies , and it was bombed by the Allies in The young nation soon came into conflict with the British, who had become caretakers of the Dutch colony after the Japanese surrender.
The Allies gave an ultimatum to the Republicans inside the city to surrender, but they refused. The ensuing battle, which cost thousands of lives, took place on 10 November, which Indonesians subsequently celebrate as Hari Pahlawan Heroes' Day. The incident of the red-white flag the Dutch flag at the top of Yamato Hotel's tower that was torn into the Indonesian red-white flag by Bung Tomo is also recorded as a heroic feat during the struggle of this city.
The city is known as Kota Pahlawan the city of heroes due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanising Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution. Surabaya was reported by a Singaporean as being clean and green. Surabaya is located on the northern coast of East Java province. It is mostly lowlands with a river estuary of Kalimas , one of two branches of the Brantas River.
Surabaya city borders Madura Strait in the north and east, Sidoarjo Regency in the south, and Gresik Regency in the west. The regencies surrounding Surabaya are:. Like many other large Indonesian metropolises, many residents reside outside the city limits in a metropolitan area called Gerbangkertosusila. The city's wet season runs from October through May, while the dry season covers the remaining four months. Surabaya is one of the cleanest and greenest cities in Indonesia.
Bungkul Park was awarded the Asian Townscape Award from the United Nations as the best park in Asia because of its very complete and integrated facilities, starting from the economic area street food centers , green open area, parks, disability-friendly area, free internet Wi-Fi , and routine garden maintenance management.
The Adipura Cup, which Surabaya won several times in the s and s, the Adipura Kencana trophy, the cleanest metropolitan city category in the s and in the period of to , seven consecutive times, as well as the Adipura trophy, plenary in The city has its own local government and legislative body.
The mayor and members of representatives are locally elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The city government enjoys greater decentralisation of affairs than the provincial body, such as the provision of public schools, public health facilities, and public transportation. The current mayor of the city is Tri Rismaharini , the city's first female mayor, and has led Surabaya to achieve many regional, national and international awards since her first term began in Besides Mayor and Vice Mayor, there is Surabaya Municipal People's Representative Council, which is a legislative body of 50 council members directly elected by the people in legislative elections every five years.
The city administration maintains a central command center since , integrating all civic services including Satpol PP, Bakesbangpol and Linmas, Hygiene and Parks Service, Transportation Agency, Public Works Agency of Highways and Extermination, ambulance and fire services.
Surabaya is divided into 31 kecamatan districts ,   and kelurahan subdistricts. The districts are:. Surabaya is the second-most populous city in Indonesia, with 3,, recorded in the chartered city limits kota in the census. The central government of Indonesia recognises only the metropolitan area Surabaya, Gresik, and Sidarjo as Greater Surabaya Zona Surabaya Raya with a population of 8,, , making Surabaya now the second-largest metropolitan area in Indonesia.
As a leading education center, the city is also home for students from around Indonesia. Surabaya is an old city that has expanded over time, and its population continues to grow at roughly 2. In recent years, more people have moved to Surabaya from nearby suburbs and villages in East Java.
Javanese people form the majority in Surabaya while the Madurese are significant minorities. Surabaya is one of the major cities in Indonesia that has a significant population of Chinese , Indian and Middle East people ; there are Arabs , especially the Hadhrami people that originate from the Hadhramaut region in Yemen , Armenian people , and Jews.
Most citizens speak a dialect of East Javanese called Suroboyoan , a subdialect of the Arekan dialect. A stereotype of this dialect concerns equality and directness in speech. The Suroboyoan dialect is actively promoted in local media, such as in local TV shows, radio, newspapers, and traditional dramas called Ludruk.
The influence of Hinduism is strong in basic Surabayan culture, but only a minority of the population adheres to Hinduism mostly among the ethnic Indian  and Balinese minorities. Also, a significant population of Chinese Indonesians adhere to Buddhism and Confucianism , and a small community of Dutch Jews follow Judaism.
The city had an influential role as a major Islamic center in Java during the Wali Sanga era. Christianity as a whole is mainly practised by Chinese Indonesians, as well as native Javanese , Bataks , and Ambonese who attend either a Roman Catholic or Protestant church.
Around 15 churches are in Surabaya; they vary in size. The Church of the Birth of Our Lady , also known as Gereja Kepanjen, was built in as the first church in Surabaya and is one of the oldest churches in Indonesia. Once the major religion in Surabaya and across the archipelago during the Janggala and Majapahit era, Hinduism played a major role in traditional Surabayan culture.
The synagogue was demolished in by unidentified persons while the city council was in the process of registering it as a heritage site. Church of the Birth of Our Lady , oldest church in Surabaya. An Eastern Orthodox Church congregation. Javanese culture in Surabaya has distinctive characteristics compared to other regions, the uniqueness of its characteristics which is more egalitarian and open.
Surabaya is known to have several distinctive arts, namely:. In addition to the art above, the call culture of arek or rek a distinctive call from Surabaya is also a unique characteristic. There are other distinctive calls as well, namely Cak for men and Ning for women. Event organisers usually aside from art groups in Surabaya also come from outside the city.
Also enlivened is the screening of movie screens and T-shirt exhibitions. In addition to Javanese culture, there has also been a mixture of various cultures such as from Madura, the Arab world, India, the Malay world, China and Europe. The Surabaya Cross Culture is an annual art and culture festival that show various cultures outside Indonesia.
Since the early s, Surabaya has been one of the most important and busiest trading city ports in Asia. The economy is influenced by the recent growth in international industries and the completion of the Suramadu Bridge. The high potential and economic activities make the city an attractive destination to foreign investors. The city is home to a large shipyard and numerous specialised naval schools. As the provincial capital, Surabaya has numerous offices and business centers; as a metropolitan city, it became the center of economic, financial, and business activities in East Java and beyond.
Also, Surabaya is the second-largest port city in Indonesia after Jakarta. As a trading center, Surabaya is not only a trade center for East Java, but also facilitates areas in Central Java , Kalimantan , and Eastern Indonesia. Surabaya's strategic location in almost in the center of Indonesia and just south of Asia makes it one of the critical hubs for trading activities in Southeast Asia. Surabaya and the surrounding area are undergoing the most rapidly growing and the most advanced economic development in Indonesia.
The city is also one of the most essential cities in supporting Indonesia's economy. Most of the population is engaged in services, industry, and trade. Surabaya is a fast-growing trading center. Major industries include shipbuilding, heavy equipment, food processing and agriculture, electronics, home furnishings, and handicrafts.
The area between Jalan Basuki Rachmat, Jalan Tunjungan ,  Jalan Embong Malang, and Jalan Bubutan has grown as a business center and has turned into one of the main business and trade activities areas in Surabaya. This area has now grown as one of the most rapidly growing commercial and business centers in East Java, with high-rise buildings.
Surabaya has plenty of shopping centers like other major cities of Indonesia, ranging from traditional markets to most modern shopping malls. Outlets of local and international brands have a presence in modern shopping malls. Architecture in Surabaya is a mixture of colonial, Asian, Javanese, modern, and post-modern influences.
There are many colonial-era relics still standing today, such as Hotel Majapahit and Surabaya Post Office. As a relatively old city in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, most colonial buildings were built around the 17th century to the early 20th century. Before the Second World War , there were many shophouses in the old part of the city, mostly of two-storey. Although some have been dismantled for new construction, there are still many old buildings that are preserved as cultural heritage and city icons, which are around the area of Kembang Jepun Street, Karet Street, Gula Street, Slompretan Street, and Rajawali Street.
After the independence of Indonesia, the center of Surabaya's architectural development was concentrated only in the area of Jembatan Merah and its surroundings. In the late s and early s, modern and post-modern style buildings were increasingly emerging in Surabaya. Along with economic development, such buildings have continued to grow.
The Eastern Fleet, one of three fleets in the Indonesian Navy , is headquartered in the city. Transportation in Surabaya is supported by land and sea infrastructure serving local, regional, and international journeys. Air transport is located at Juanda Airport , at Sedati , Sidoarjo.
Intracity transport is primarily by motor vehicles, motorcycles and taxis with limited public bus transport available. Surabaya is also a transit city between Jakarta and Bali for ground transportation. Another bus route is between Jakarta and the neighboring island of Madura.
This airport has served Surabaya for many years and currently has two terminals, with domestic flights served from Terminal 1 and all international flights and Garuda Indonesia's domestic flights serviced from Terminal 2. Port of Tanjung Perak is the trading port in East Java and is one of the busiest ports in the country. It is the second-largest port of trade, container and passenger in Indonesia after the Port of Tanjung Priok in Jakarta.
The port terminal of Lamong Bay is the first green port in Indonesia and is one of the most sophisticated port terminals in the world where the entire operating system is automated. Both economy and executive class trains are served to and from Surabaya. Commuter trains in the city has 5 separate lines as of that connecting Surabaya with surrounding regencies. Surabaya formerly had an approximately 50 kilometres 31 mi of tram network , operated by a private company Oost-Java Stoomtram Maatschappij.
There are plans to reopen the network in the future. There are various kinds of local transport, including taxi-cabs, Suroboyo Bus , shuttle bus service , city bus , Angguna , and Commuter rail. Go-Jek and Grab are also available. A 16 kilometres 9. This container port was built to ease the burden on Surabaya's overloaded Tanjung Perak Port. Surabaya has several major universities and institutions, including those with religious or technical specialties sorted by importance :.
As a metropolitan city, all types of Indonesian cuisine and other international restaurants have a presence. East Javanese cuisines include a variety of processed fruits, crispy tempeh, Bakpao telo, Bakso Malang, Rawon, tahu campur lamongan, Cwie noodles, tahu takwa, tahu pong, getuk pisang, pecel madiun, wingko , tape , nasi krawu, otak-otak bandeng, bonggolan, shrimp crackers, shrimp paste or petis, Tempeh Chips, tahu tepo, Nasi lethok, sego tempong, salad soup, pecel rawon, Suwar-suwir, tape proll, gaplek, lodho, goat satay, and pecel tulungagung.
Surabaya is famous for Rawon, Rujak cingur, Semanggi, Lontong Balap, clams satay, mussels, and rice cake. Surabaya is a barometer and center of association football development in Indonesia. The city has many association football clubs and founded in Surabaya. These are the pioneers of association football in Surabaya. The Surabaya Chinese and native people also founded their association football clubs by ethnicity. Surabaya also has a women's soccer team which was founded in and named Puteri Puspita.
Clubs from Surabaya have also gained attention from the rest of the world. Aside from European teams, there are several national teams outside the country competing against Persebaya, including Yugoslavia Olympics, Malaysia, Mozambique, Uruguay, Thailand, South Korea, and the Japanese national team. The achievements of NIAC Mitra in the Galatama competition included champions three times in —, —, —, and were runners-up in — Persebaya was listed as the first team capable of winning the Indonesian League twice.
Mitra Surabaya was only able to exist until the — season and it was re-established again in another city, Tenggarong and has not used the name of Surabaya again. Recently, only Persebaya has stable fans and achievements. Persebaya has won the Indonesian Premier Division three times—twice when the division was the first tier and once as the second tier. Fans refer to themselves as Bonek, an abbreviation for Bondo Nekat which translates as "equipped by bravery". Surabaya has a multi-purpose stadium , Gelora Bung Tomo Stadium.
The stadium is used mostly for football matches. It is the new home stadium of Persebaya, replacing Gelora 10 November Stadium. Another prevalent sport is badminton. There are numerous schools and clubs in the city that train students of various ages to reach the next level of the Badminton League. One of the largest circulating national newspaper in Indonesia, Jawa Pos , is headquartered in Surabaya; alongside its media conglomerate Jawa Pos Group.
Major newspapers include Surabaya Pagi and Surya. Surabaya is served by many radio and television networks. Surabaya is twinned with: . Kya-Kya or Kembang Jepun , the city's Chinatown. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. City in Indonesia. For other uses, see Surabaya disambiguation. City in Java, Indonesia.
Coat of arms. Location within East Java. Location in Java and Indonesia. Further information: Timeline of Surabaya. Places adjacent to Surabaya. Religions of Surabaya — Census  religion percent Islam. Al-Akbar Mosque. Sanggar Agung , a Chinese folk temple. Jewish Surabaya Synagogue. See also: List of tallest buildings in Surabaya. See also: Port of Tanjung Perak. Further information: Commuter rail in Surabaya. See also: Javanese cuisine. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Indonesia.
Main category: People from Surabaya. Indonesia portal. Continental Sales, Incorporated. ISBN February Retrieved 24 June Archived from the original on 1 April Retrieved 1 April Irian Jaya". Research in international studies: Southeast Asia series. Singapore University Press. Republika Online in Indonesian.
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