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Obesity dating

Although high school women are more concerned about their weight than men are about theirs, the women are more willing than men to date an overweight person. Once married, obese husbands are less happy with their marriages than other men, but men who have lost weight report fewer marital problems than obese or average-weight men or men who have gained weight during marriage. Obese wives, on the other hand, are happier with their marriages than average-weight wives.

While newly-married women gain more weight than other wives do, or men do proportionately, few gain a lot during their first year of marriage. These are some of the recent findings of Jeffery Sobal, a Cornell nutritional sociologist who studies the sociology of obesity and the relationship between obesity and dating, marriage and marital satisfaction. Some cultures value big round bodies, though not the United States.

In this country, the higher one's socioeconomic status, the thinner a person is likely to be. Married people weigh more than the unmarried, parents weigh more than nonparents and whites weigh less -- and value thinness more -- than Hispanics or African Americans, reports Sobal with Cornell colleague Carol Devine, assistant professor of nutritional sciences. Society tends to reject obese individuals and subject them to severe stigmatization and discrimination in many social arenas, including education, employment, marriage, housing and health care," Sobal said.

Such discrimination can have a major impact on a person for their entire life. In a study of high school students, Sobal with then-Cornell undergraduate students Vasiliki Nicolopoulos and Jennifer Lee examined how much prejudice students felt in dating obese people.

In a paper published in the International Journal of Obesity Vol. In addition, women were more likely to consider themselves overweight and had more stringent body weight ideals than men had about women. Women were also much more concerned about being the right weight than men were. And yet, those who emerge into their sexual selves as obese are less likely to find love in adulthood.

The trend is especially stark, the research shows us, for women. That Pythagorean explanation of beauty stayed in place, they write, until the late 18th century, when philosophers such as David Hume and Edmund Burke raised the prospect that beauty could be based on one's own individual emotions and preferences. It was then, Drs. Swami and Furnham observe, that "beauty had firmly been placed in the proverbial eye of the beholder. That made beauty preferences — Why are you attracted to this person?

As late as the s, the scholarly pursuit of passionate love and sexual desire was considered frivolous and senseless. And it wasn't 'hot'--the hot topic in the s was mathematical modeling. Around that time, she and a group of researchers advertised a "Computer Dance" to incoming freshmen at the University of Minnesota that would give science a foothold in divining physical attraction.

The Computer Dance, the results of which were published in , would become, declared Drs. Swami and Furnham, "the catalyst for interest in physical attractiveness within the psychological sciences. Walster's "serendipitous finding" could predict the fate of fat people trying to date on the Internet. Freshmen "Gophers" who purchased tickets were told that an IBM computer--a futuristic novelty at the time--would match them on a blind date based on their personality and interests.

What the students didn't know was that as they moved through the ticket line, Walster's collaborators were rating the students' physical attractiveness, and they would be sorted into categories that might seem insensitive by today's standards: Ugly, Average, and Attractive.

The Computer Dance was a big ruse. Two days later, hundreds of freshmen were paired up, not based on their similarities, as they had been told, but randomly, with one exception: Men weren't matched with taller women. The Computer Dance was staged at a large nearby armory. Around 8 o'clock in the evening, newly paired freshmen began arriving, completely unaware that they were part of a grand experiment that would swing the beauty pendulum away from the eye of the beholder and once more toward Pythagoras and evolutionary psychology.

The students and their dates danced and talked in the armory for more than 2 hours until an intermission was called and the students, some rounded up from restrooms and fire escapes, were asked to rate their dates. Walster and her colleagues imagined that personality, intelligence, or similar interests would best predict whether dates liked each other. Instead, they found the best predictor of whether two dates liked each other, and were still dating 6 months later, was their physical attractiveness.

Walster's work launched a frenzy of studies over the ensuing decades that sought to chronicle the rewards and penalties of physical attractiveness in nearly every aspect of our lives: its surreptitious and subtle-- or blatant and brutal--imprint on hiring and salaries, first impressions and character judgments, and swooning hearts.

Furnham and Swami, "physical beauty has both an immediate and predictable effect on social interactions. By permission of Rodale Books.

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If you're attracted to fat women but date thin women as a cover, that's just as screwed up as using people to fake your sexuality - it will hurt everyone involved. I knew a gay guy who hadn't come out to his family, so to keep his facade as a straight person, he'd date very conservative Christian women Christian so that they wouldn't expect him to sleep with them.

He didn't think he was doing anything wrong by dating them, but, in fact, he was using them and lying to himself. Everyone should have the freedom to express their desires openly as long as there's consent from both parties. If a fat woman wants a purely sexual relationship, that's great, but it shouldn't be her only option. Some guys think that they're doing a fat woman a favour just by having sex with her - that we're beyond grateful for any attention whatsoever.

Because we're fat, we're willing to do almost anything with anyone, and that there are no limits to what we'll do to please you. Don't tell me you're looking for a relationship, or act like we're in one, when all you really want is to experience what sex with a fat woman is like.

I'll tell you what it's like: It's as amazing and fun as having sex with anyone who's into having sex with you. We don't have magic vaginas, and our breasts don't do any special tricks - well besides the usual, like feed or comfort people. Fat women are just as hot and sexually gifted as women of other shapes, sizes, and abilities. Being fat doesn't mean we're so hungry for attention that we'll put our own needs aside and do whatever we can to rock your world.

Being alone is far better than compromising on what you deserve or being made to feel as if you're someone's big dirty secret. I regret not standing up for myself when I discovered that the athletic guy was only using me for sex. But at least I learned, as we all should learn, that I'm responsible for being my biggest advocate and to never accepting anything less than what I need.

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We also conducted additional analyses across all four studies to examine whether participant BMI calculated using self-reported data may be an important factor shaping attraction to overweight men. Across the studies, heavier women generally tended to find overweight men more attractive. The effect that exposing participants to obese men had on attraction was not moderated by participant BMI in any of the studies.

See online Supplementary material for analyses. However, it is of importance to note that these patterns of results may have differed if we had included an objective measurement of participant body weight or a measurement of perceived personal participant weight status.

Across four studies, we examined whether exposure to obese men increased female attraction toward overweight men. In Study 1, visual exposure to obese men resulted in women finding an overweight man more physically attractive. Study 2 showed that exposure to obese men altered visual perceptions of what normal and therefore healthy body weights were and this pathway mediated the effect that exposure had on attraction toward an overweight man.

Study 3 conceptually replicated these findings by showing that women who regularly socialise with heavier men report a greater attraction toward overweight men. Finally, Study 4 showed that exposure to obese men, as opposed to healthy weight men, may have an effect on mate choice. Single women taking part in an online dating study were more likely to report that they would choose to date an overweight man ahead of a healthy weight man, after having been exposed to obese men.

The present studies show for the first time that visual exposure to heavier male body weights can shape how attractive females find men of heavier body weights. These findings are in line with suggestions that body weight preferences are likely to be determined by learning and environmental input. The present findings also have relevance to societal increases in body weight. Previous work has shown that obese individuals are commonly seen as less desirable mates, 11 , 12 but based on the present findings, one might predict that mate preferences concerning overweight individuals may become less negative.

Here, we examined visual attraction toward overweight men, which is more common and presumably more socially acceptable than obesity, so it may be the case that exposure does not enhance attraction toward obese men. Given that obesity is now becoming prevalent in many parts of the world, we may start to see shifts in mate preference toward partners of slightly heavier body weights.

The potential role that stigma has in explaining the present findings warrants attention. The context in which participants were exposed to obesity in the present study also warrants discussion. Research indicates that obesity stigma may have increased in recent years, 28 and one consequence of this is that obese individuals are often portrayed in a negative manner in the media, 13 as opposed to the neutral manner of exposure used in the present studies. Thus, it may be the case that the type of visual exposure to obesity which occurs through viewing popular media does not normalise heavier body weights.

The present studies were designed to examine the effect that exposure to different body weights has on female attraction to overweight men. As we observed consistent evidence that exposure to obese men was associated with increased female attraction toward an overweight man, this now raises a question of whether a similar pattern of results would be observed when examining male attraction toward overweight women.

The use of standardized images of actual healthy, overweight and obese individuals is a strength of this work, as often body image studies rely on artificial or perceptually extreme images, 15 , 16 making it difficult to ascertain whether findings will transfer over to judgements made about actual people. Given that we examined attraction and mate choice shortly after exposure to a relatively small number of bodies, it is not clear from the present studies how long these effects would last for.

A final limitation was that we only examined attraction toward Caucasian men, so further research examining how exposure to heavier body weights influence attraction amongst other ethnicities would now be interesting. Optimum body-mass index and sexual attractiveness. Lancet ; : Article Google Scholar. Female and male perceptions of female physical attractiveness in front-view and profile. Br J Psychol ; 92 : — Evol Hum Behav ; 26 : — Body images, body-size perceptions, and eating behaviors among African-American and white college women.

Int J Eat Disord ; 12 : — Sex Roles ; 61 : 14— Visual adaptation and face perception. Fitting the mind to the world: Face adaptation and attractiveness aftereffects. Psychol Sci ; 14 : — Winkler C, Rhodes G. Perceptual adaptation affects attractiveness of female bodies. Br J Psychol ; 96 : — Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, J Am Med Assoc ; : — From overweight to about right: evidence of a generational shift in body weight norms.

Obesity Silver Spring ; 18 : — Chen EY, Brown M. Obesity stigma in sexual relationships. Obes Res ; 13 : — Sitton S, Blanchard S. Psychol Rep ; 77 : — The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Obesity Silver Spring ; 17 : — Portrayals of overweight and obese individuals on commercial television.

Am J Pub Health ; 93 : — The importance of perceptual experience in the esthetic appreciation of the body. PLoS One ; 8 : e Visual diet versus associative learning as mechanisms of change in body size preferences. PLoS One ; 7 : e Robinson E, Kirkham TC. Is he a healthy weight? Exposure to obesity changes perceptions of what a healthy weight looks like. Int J Obes Lond ; 38 : — Robinson E, Christiansen P. The changing face of obesity: exposure to and acceptance of obesity.

Obesity Silver Spring ; 22 : — Weeden J, Sabin J. Physical attractiveness and health in western societies: a review. Psychol Bull ; : — When facial attractiveness is only skin deep. Perception ; 33 : — Evaluating online labor markets for experimental research: Amazon.

Political Analysis ; 20 : — Oldham M, Robinson E. Visual weight status misperceptions of men: Why overweight can look like a healthy weight. J Health Psychol e-pub ahead of print 20 January In Kety S ed. The Genetics of Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders. Raven Press: New York, ; — Google Scholar. Categorical perception of human female physical attractiveness and health. Evol Hum Behav ; 33 : 85— The thick and the thin of it: Contextual effects in body perception. Basic Appl Soc Psych ; 27 : — Am I abnormal?

Relative rank and social norm effects in judgments of anxiety and depression symptom severity. J Behav Decis Making ; 26 : — J Appl Soc Psychol ; 41 : — Changes in perceived weight discrimination among Americans: — through — Obesity Silver Spring ; 16 : — Rodin J. Cultural and Psychosocial determinants of weight concerns. Ann Intern Med ; : — Hargreaves DA, Tiggemann M. Sex Roles ; 49 : — Body size dissatisfaction and the effects of perceptual exposure on body norms and ideals.

Int J Eat Disord ; 42 : — Download references. ER and PC conceived the experiments, analysed data and were involved in writing the paper. ER conducted the experiments. This research received no external funding. ER was partly supported by the Wellcome Trust. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to E Robinson. Supplementary Information accompanies this paper on International Journal of Obesity website.

Reprints and Permissions. Robinson, E. Visual exposure to obesity: Experimental effects on attraction toward overweight men and mate choice in females. Int J Obes 39, — Download citation. Received : 02 February Revised : 07 April Accepted : 06 May Published : 22 May Issue Date : September Advanced search.

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These findings are in line with suggestions that body weight preferences are likely to be determined by learning and environmental input. The present findings also have relevance to societal increases in body weight. Previous work has shown that obese individuals are commonly seen as less desirable mates, 11 , 12 but based on the present findings, one might predict that mate preferences concerning overweight individuals may become less negative.

Here, we examined visual attraction toward overweight men, which is more common and presumably more socially acceptable than obesity, so it may be the case that exposure does not enhance attraction toward obese men. Given that obesity is now becoming prevalent in many parts of the world, we may start to see shifts in mate preference toward partners of slightly heavier body weights.

The potential role that stigma has in explaining the present findings warrants attention. The context in which participants were exposed to obesity in the present study also warrants discussion. Research indicates that obesity stigma may have increased in recent years, 28 and one consequence of this is that obese individuals are often portrayed in a negative manner in the media, 13 as opposed to the neutral manner of exposure used in the present studies.

Thus, it may be the case that the type of visual exposure to obesity which occurs through viewing popular media does not normalise heavier body weights. The present studies were designed to examine the effect that exposure to different body weights has on female attraction to overweight men. As we observed consistent evidence that exposure to obese men was associated with increased female attraction toward an overweight man, this now raises a question of whether a similar pattern of results would be observed when examining male attraction toward overweight women.

The use of standardized images of actual healthy, overweight and obese individuals is a strength of this work, as often body image studies rely on artificial or perceptually extreme images, 15 , 16 making it difficult to ascertain whether findings will transfer over to judgements made about actual people.

Given that we examined attraction and mate choice shortly after exposure to a relatively small number of bodies, it is not clear from the present studies how long these effects would last for. A final limitation was that we only examined attraction toward Caucasian men, so further research examining how exposure to heavier body weights influence attraction amongst other ethnicities would now be interesting. Optimum body-mass index and sexual attractiveness. Lancet ; : Article Google Scholar.

Female and male perceptions of female physical attractiveness in front-view and profile. Br J Psychol ; 92 : — Evol Hum Behav ; 26 : — Body images, body-size perceptions, and eating behaviors among African-American and white college women. Int J Eat Disord ; 12 : — Sex Roles ; 61 : 14— Visual adaptation and face perception. Fitting the mind to the world: Face adaptation and attractiveness aftereffects.

Psychol Sci ; 14 : — Winkler C, Rhodes G. Perceptual adaptation affects attractiveness of female bodies. Br J Psychol ; 96 : — Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, J Am Med Assoc ; : — From overweight to about right: evidence of a generational shift in body weight norms. Obesity Silver Spring ; 18 : — Chen EY, Brown M.

Obesity stigma in sexual relationships. Obes Res ; 13 : — Sitton S, Blanchard S. Psychol Rep ; 77 : — The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Obesity Silver Spring ; 17 : — Portrayals of overweight and obese individuals on commercial television.

Am J Pub Health ; 93 : — The importance of perceptual experience in the esthetic appreciation of the body. PLoS One ; 8 : e Visual diet versus associative learning as mechanisms of change in body size preferences. PLoS One ; 7 : e Robinson E, Kirkham TC. Is he a healthy weight? Exposure to obesity changes perceptions of what a healthy weight looks like. Int J Obes Lond ; 38 : — Robinson E, Christiansen P. The changing face of obesity: exposure to and acceptance of obesity.

Obesity Silver Spring ; 22 : — Weeden J, Sabin J. Physical attractiveness and health in western societies: a review. Psychol Bull ; : — When facial attractiveness is only skin deep. Perception ; 33 : — Evaluating online labor markets for experimental research: Amazon. Political Analysis ; 20 : — Oldham M, Robinson E. Visual weight status misperceptions of men: Why overweight can look like a healthy weight.

J Health Psychol e-pub ahead of print 20 January In Kety S ed. The Genetics of Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders. Raven Press: New York, ; — Google Scholar. Categorical perception of human female physical attractiveness and health. Evol Hum Behav ; 33 : 85— The thick and the thin of it: Contextual effects in body perception.

Basic Appl Soc Psych ; 27 : — Am I abnormal? Relative rank and social norm effects in judgments of anxiety and depression symptom severity. J Behav Decis Making ; 26 : — J Appl Soc Psychol ; 41 : — Changes in perceived weight discrimination among Americans: — through — Obesity Silver Spring ; 16 : — Rodin J. Cultural and Psychosocial determinants of weight concerns. Ann Intern Med ; : — Hargreaves DA, Tiggemann M. Sex Roles ; 49 : — Body size dissatisfaction and the effects of perceptual exposure on body norms and ideals.

Int J Eat Disord ; 42 : — Download references. ER and PC conceived the experiments, analysed data and were involved in writing the paper. ER conducted the experiments. This research received no external funding. ER was partly supported by the Wellcome Trust. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to E Robinson. Supplementary Information accompanies this paper on International Journal of Obesity website. Reprints and Permissions. Robinson, E. Visual exposure to obesity: Experimental effects on attraction toward overweight men and mate choice in females.

Int J Obes 39, — Download citation. Received : 02 February Revised : 07 April Accepted : 06 May Published : 22 May Issue Date : September Advanced search. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Download PDF.

Subjects Body mass index Obesity Public health Weight management. Abstract Background: Cultural differences in ideal body weight are well established, but less research has examined attraction toward potential mates of heavier body weights. Methods: In Studies 1 and 2, we examined the effect that exposure to obese vs healthy weight men had on female attraction toward an overweight man.

Results: Exposure to obesity altered visual perceptions of what normal and therefore healthy body weights were and this resulted in greater attraction toward an overweight man Studies 1 and 2. Conclusions: Exposure to male obesity increases female attraction toward overweight men and may affect mate choice. Study 1 Participants White US female participants were recruited online from Amazon Mechanical Turk, in exchange for a small monetary reward.

Stimuli Participants were exposed to 10 photographs of obese men obesity exposure condition , healthy weight men healthy weight exposure condition or everyday objects control condition , before making judgements about an overweight man. Procedure After accessing the online site, participants were shown an information sheet and gave informed consent.

Results No participants guessed the aims of the study. Figure 1. Full size image. Healthy Weight, Nutrition, and Physical Activity. Section Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. The Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity. Minus Related Pages. Want to learn more? To receive email updates about this topic, enter your email address.

Email Address. What's this? Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. Related Topics.

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