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A selection of mayors and local authority representatives have been specifically invited to attend the Summit. These representatives will have received an invitation by email to register. If you have been invited and are experiencing technical difficulties in registering, please contact registration gfmd. Participation of VIPs, including heads of Ministries and Departments, as well as UN agencies and other international organizations, must be announced in writing to ecuador gfmd.

The GFMD Support Unit will provide individual credentials to Summit panelists, interpreters, side event organizers, and those that have a special role in order for them to register for the Summit. For any assistance, please contact support. The annual Government-led RT sessions are developed through a series of open and interactive RT Team Consultations held throughout the year.

All RT sessions are geared towards generating concrete outcomes, including suggestions of specific policy options or programs. This theme signals three substantive priorities of the Chairmanship, which will be debated in Quito in two RT sessions each, as follows: Theme 1 - Coordinated responses to mixed movements: Partnerships and collective action to protect rights RT 1.

For questions on the Civil Society programme please contact contact gfmdcivilsociety. The Business Mechanism will hold a session on 22 January dedicated to a dialogue between businesses and governments on business priorities linked to skills mobility and skills development. The Mayoral Forum will be organized in a manner that combines high-level plenary sessions, addressing topics of common and strategic interest, with break-out sessions that will facilitate a more in-depth exploration of specific topics in smaller groups, including through direct interaction with the inter-governmental deliberations of the GFMD.

A dedicated space will be provided for a number of small-to-medium entrepreneurs from Tuesday to Thursday, 21 to 24 January, to share their efforts and interact with GFMD participants. To encourage similar initiatives, the entrepreneurs will be ranked by a judging panel comprised of private sector and government representatives, and the winner will be conferred an award at the closing plenary of the Summit Meeting.

For questions on the Business Tech Garden please contact info gfmdbusinessmechanism. The objective is for interested government and non-state stakeholders to exchange experiences and concrete initiatives towards the implementation of the GCM. They are also encouraged to share about challenges and lessons learned, as well as progress achieved to date. It will be open to all Friends of the Forum and relevant stakeholders. Funded delegates will receive their assigned hotels via a separate communication at a later stage, together with other practical reminders.

Non-sponsored delegates are responsible for booking and paying for their own accommodation and all related costs during their stay. Please find below the list of available hotel rooms with preferential rates that have been negotiated by the host government:. Transportation arrangements will be made to bring participants to and from these designated hotels to the meeting venue transportation services from and to the International Airport Mariscal Sucre in Quito, Ecuador, to the designated GFMD hotels will not be covered.

Spa: Swimming pool,gym, steam bath, jacuzzi. Separate women and men relaxing areas. Breakfast buffet, internet all access, use of VIP room,permanent coffee and tea station, welcome drink, 24h room service, snacks from Breakfast buffet, local calls, Wi-fi access, access to gym, medical assistance, 1 hour of free Business Center use.

GFMD Participants who are staying in any of the following hotels need to make their own transportation arrangements to and from the venue. Address: Av. Amazonas y Rio Curaray. Parque Bicentenario. It has a capacity to accommodate more than 13, people in its 16, m2 area. It has two showrooms, one auditorium, and multiple meeting rooms. The Convention Center has been awarded two international certifications that include the LEED green building certification, making it the first public building with sustainable, healthy and cost-saving features.

Also, with the GUDC accesability certification, the main conference is wheelchair accessible. Wifi Connectivity WiFi Connectivity will be available in the entire conference area. There will be complimentary mobile and laptop charging stations. Simultaneous interpretation services for designated activities will be made available in English, French and Spanish. To avail of interpretation headphones, delegates may be asked to present an official photo ID or passport.

In the interest of promoting more interactive discussions, some sessions may be organized according to languages English, French or Spanish. In such cases, there will be no simultaneous interpretation except when the outcomes of these smaller sessions are reported back in plenary. Please take note that no printing or copying facilities will be made available in the conference building.

All meeting related documents will be made available on the GFMD website: www. All delegates are requested to bring their own electronic devices, suh as smartphones, tablets or laptops and to download the GFMD Mobile App free of charge onto their devices before the conference.

They may, if desired, bring their own hard copies of the background papers and other program related documents. In order to facilitate distribution of presentations during the meeting, participants are requested to e-mail electronic copies of their presentations to the organizers at least two days before the scheduled presentation via support. There will be a catering service available from Tuesday 21st to Thursday 23rd located at There will be no restriction on the delegation size of governments and organizations comprising the Friends of the Forum , provided that each delegate has registered according to established modalities see below and duly coordinated by their respective focal points.

Please note, however, that separate modalities apply for the participation of representatives from the civil society , business and mayors and local authorities. The entire venue will be a secured area. Only those with an accreditation badge can access the premises of the conference venue. Every person will be checked at the entrance of the Centro de Convenciones Metropolitano de Quito.

Designated entry points for the different GFMD mechanisms will be in place, to be communicated at a later stage. Participants are requested to arrive at the venue by 13h30 in the afternoon for the inaugural ceremony on 21 January. If delegations would like special permits for entry to the country, they must anticipate their arrival by contacting their closest Diplomatic representation.

There will be limited space for bilateral or private meeting rooms. Interested States and Organizations are advised to contact Ms. Fernanda Andrade in order to reserve the slots, on a first-come first-serve basis. The delegations who need a room for a bilateral meeting need to confirm their counterpart and the subject of the meeting , this in order to assure that the subject is related to the GFMD agenda.

The time frame for bilateral meetings is Tuesday 21st to Thursday 23rd , from 09h00 to 17h In order to schedule a bilateral meeting, please contact Fernanda Andrade A. To promote broad and balanced participation from all regions of the world, limited financial resources may be extended to selected GFMD delegates, subject to availability of funds and according to the usual modalities, namely:.

The financial assistance to the LDC and OLIC delegates may cover the following: A most direct and cost-efficient economy return air ticket; Hotel accommodation based on actual travel itinerary; and Per diems DSA : will be determined and announced by the Chair in due course. Tier 2: In addition, the Chair may consider funding the participation of one 1 government delegate from some of the low-income developing countries in the OECD DAC list, depending on the availability of funds.

Priority will be given to those who have a special role in the Summit activities e. The financial assistance to delegates from low-income developing countries may cover the following: A most direct and cost-efficient economy class return air ticket; and Hotel accommodation based on actual travel itinerary.

How to apply for Financial Assistance:. Please submit the following documents via email to support. Requests must be submitted no later than Friday, 15 November Information about air ticket, flight itinerary, assigned hotels and per diems will be communicated by the GFMD Support Unit to approved funded delegates in due course. Should you have any questions concerning the administration of financial assistance, please contact the GFMD Support Unit via support.

Transportation arrangements will be made to bring participants to and from the designated hotels to the meeting venue. The transportation schedule will be disseminated in due course. Outside of this schedule, the GFMD cannot provide any other transportation service. Please note, too, that taxi fares will not be reimbursed by the GFMD. Visitors from most countries do not require visas to enter Ecuador.

Foreigners can enter Ecuador upon presentation of a travel document that proves their identity. Likewise, the immigration control agent must verify the immigration status used by the foreign person at the time of its presentation at the official immigration control point. Yellow fever vaccination is recommended to all travelers national and international who include in their travel itinerary or who reside in the provinces of the Ecuadorian Amazon Napo, Pastaza, Orellana, Sucumbios, Zamora Chinchipe and Morona Santiago ; as well as national travelers visiting countries with active yellow fever outbreaks, such as Brazil, Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda.

It is worth mentioning that travelers visiting these countries must compulsorily present their international certificate of vaccination according to the rules of the International Health Regulations-IHR. The Republic of Ecuador is a country in northwestern South America with a population of over 16,, estimate.

It is governed as a democratic presidential republic. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though Amerindian languages are also recognized, including Quichua and Shuar. When it comes to religion, the Ecuadorian society is relatively homogeneous, with Christianity being the primary religion.

Roman Catholicism is the main Christian denomination in the country. However, affiliation with Protestant churches is increasing. Quito is located at the heart of Ecuador. As the capital city with an altitude of 2,m, it lies over an ancient Incan city that stood upon the highlands, and it was also one of the first Spanish colonial cities in South America. In , it became the first city to be named Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO because of its old town centre, which is considered as one of the largest and best preserved colonial towns in America.

Currency exchange services are available at the airport, hotel receptions for smaller amounts in USD and currency exchange offices casa de cambio that are mainly located at Quito center La Mariscal area: Global Exhange; Inter Euro; Money Exchange,etc. The majority of commercial establishments accept the following credit cards: Visa, Mastercard, Diners Club.

The weather of Ecuador varies by region, due to differences in elevation 2,m in Quito and, to a certain degree, proximity to the equator. The weather in Quito is consistent with that of a subtropical highland climate. The city has barely any cool air since it is close to the equator. During the morning, it is typically very sunny, but the afternoon and night could get very cold; hence, it is convenient to use long pants and a sweater.

It is recommended to always carry an umbrella or a rain jacket. Ecuador has made significant progress in promoting citizen safety from certain crimes. Nonetheless, delegates are advised to follow some security measures. To avoid being a victim of robbery or pick-pocketing, avoid carrying any valuable things or hailing taxis on the street. All three operators offer 2G, 3G and 4G prepaid SIM cards which can be bought from shops, supermarkets, kiosks, pharmacies, official stores, and at the airport.

To add credit, there are several prepaid SIM card machines around towns and cities, and vouchers are stocked in shops and supermarkets. The AdForum Worldwide Summit is a program for search consultants and global agencies. It is an invitation-only event that brings top players in the industry together and offers them the chance to grow their business, network, and experience how they are shaping the future.

Zahn Rossouw - Senior Consultant. Be that as it may, I left AdForum with a wealth of knowledge and a much stronger network of friends and peers. It was worth the long and exhausting flight and the cost. Johanna McDowell - Founder. The Summits encourage sharing of best practice in our industry and have proved invaluable to the IAS


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This was followed by a period of glacier advance that started around the lifetime of the Iceman, with a delayed onset of glaciation on lower elevation summits. Photograph of the Buntes Moor bog profile with indicated radiocarbon ages 28 as orange dashed lines. Grey layers are fluvioglacial sediments from the basin e. Dark layers are peat formed during warm periods. As shown in Fig. At high-elevation and summit locations, glaciers are typically very limited in size and heavily exposed to wind erosion as a main constraint on net accumulation there 8.

Instead, the dependence on altitude found here suggests a primary connection to mean annual temperature, and its lapse rate, for neoglaciation at these sites. In a simplistic view, a cooling trend would lead to snow accumulation, prolonged positive mass balance and subsequent ice formation on highest elevation sites earlier than on lower elevation, as the ablation rate is smaller at the former. Vice versa, warm periods might lead to increased ablation and prolonged negative mass balance on lower sites, leaving higher glaciers unchanged in geometry, as is the case today for the highest summits of the Western Alps Compilation of dated past neoglaciation events at high-elevation locations in the Alps.

Note the general correspondence between glacier maximum age and its altitude. The blue shaded area indicates the period of continuous ice cover. Also shown are the tree line reconstruction from Kaunertal 26 and the reconstructed advances of Gepatschferner greater than its extent Within the region of WSS, maximum glacier age constraints were obtained from a deep ice core drilled at Ortler summit glacier: aerosol-based micro- 14 C dating indicates a glacier formation starting earlier at the higher altitude of around m, namely around 6.

As opposed to the ice dome at WSS, the saddle geometry affects the interpretation of the ice core dating in relation to glacier maximum age constraints. At Colle Gnifetti, for two ice cores drilled close to the saddle point, radiocarbon dates from the deepest layers point to ice older than In contrast, in an ice core drilled at a flank position, a basal age of only 4.

Two non-exclusive interpretations may explain the age difference between saddle and flank locations. Due to ice flow at flank positions, the deepest ice layer originating from the neoglaciation may have been severely thinned, making it difficult to adequately resolve its age in a bulk sample.

Moreover, the original neoglaciation may have started as a small ice patch around the saddle and not reached the flanks until a further build-up of the glacier was completed. Notably, if taken at face value as the maximum glacier age, the radiocarbon dates from the saddle positions at Colle Gnifetti are a good fit with the elevation gradient of neoglaciation revealed at sites below m Fig.

The elevation-age gradient implies that in the Alps only the highest elevation sites, such as Colle Gnifetti, remained ice-covered throughout the Holocene. This view is corroborated by the fact that the summits above m show only minor volume changes even under current climate conditions Regarding the presence of glaciers below m, Holocene climate variability has sufficed to induce their de- and subsequent neoglaciation. Considering the current ice loss at WSS and elsewhere, a systematic shift towards a warmer future climate will eradicate these ice archives permanently.

Although the spatial density of dated ice archives is particularly high in the case of the Alps, our approach can, in principle, be transferred to other mountain ranges to study their Holocene neoglaciation history. This appears especially promising where age constraints on the deepest layers of high-elevation glaciers already exist However, the discussion of the maximum age constraints at Colle Gnifetti illustrates the importance of topographic effects for interpreting the fluctuation and presence of glaciers as indicators of climate 34 and climate change In this context, it is worth noting that point mass balance data have been shown to reflect changes in climate better than total mass balance or terminus fluctuation Cold high-elevation glaciers with low ice dynamics, as almost ideal—typical at WSS, thus present a more direct link to past climate change than terminus fluctuations.

In addition, the altitude of the site affects the sensitivity of any glaciers to changes in climate. Although the altitudinal target range may be different for every mountain range, we have demonstrated here for the Alps how certain high-elevation glaciers provide valuable information of Holocene glaciation. This provides important background knowledge for planning sustainable development in mountain regions as they approach nearly ice-free conditions in a warmer future climate.

While only the highest elevation sites remained ice-covered throughout the Holocene, summits around — m were likely ice-free during the Mid-Holocene or covered by glaciers distinctly smaller than today. Around the lifetime of the Tyrolean Iceman and slightly earlier, rapid ice formation started and some of this ice cover exists to this day.

However, it may not be the deglaciation of the summits during the Holocene that is unprecedented, but its pace, on which we urgently need extensive empirical information. Our findings demonstrate that the cold ice at certain glaciers, even below m, is indeed a sensitive archive that delivers a baseline of at least 5 millennia of Alpine glacier change, which allows us not only to tackle past climate variability, but also to find evidence for the effects of climate change mitigation over future decades.

No presence of a firn layer was found in snow pits apart from seasonal snow coverage. Englacial temperature measurements verify cold-ice conditions and indicate ice frozen to bedrock Fig. Ice flow velocities at the ice divide were measured at stakes with differential GPS. Results from englacial temperatures from the automatic weather station at the WSS summit grey: air temperature, blue: ice temperature at 9 m depth, red: ice temperature at 6 m depth, black: ice temperature at 1 m depth.

The visual stratigraphy of the ice cores showed white, bubble-rich ice layers, occasionally interrupted by cm-thick clear layers of refrozen meltwater. The lowermost 30 cm of the cores showed small rocks incorporated into the ice, a clear sign of bedrock proximity. This is consistent with scratch marks on the cutters of the core barrel after the last drilling run to bedrock. No further ice could be recovered, providing clear evidence that bedrock had been reached.

In addition to the deep cores drilled to bedrock, three shallow cores were drilled to 3—4 m depth, at positions around the location of the deep ice core drilling. From the shallow cores, three samples each of ml i. From the main ice core drilled to bedrock, subsamples for stable water isotope analysis were cut manually at 5 cm intervals to 8. Measurements were performed at the Institute of Environmental Physics, Heidelberg University, using a cavity ring-down spectrometer.

The slope lies close to the global meteoric water line slope 8 , whereas melting and refreezing would lead to reduced values of the slope Hence, the co-isotopic analysis presents no clear signs of isotopic change after ice formation for the bulk part of the stratigraphy.

Results from co-isotopic analysis of the WSS ice core. Linear regression results in a slope of 7. A total of six samples selected for micro-radiocarbon dating 55—70 cm in length was shipped via cold-storage transport to the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI. There, samples were rinsed with ultrapure water to remove the potentially contaminated outer layer. The system allows online 14 C measurements of the carbonaceous fractions separated by the Sunset.

It is reported for completeness but was not considered further for interpretation. For the WSS ice core, radiocarbon sample preparation, analysis and interpretation were performed by M. Collection of other data were conducted by P. All authors contributed to the final version of the manuscript. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Read article at publisher's site DOI : To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation.

Free to read. Sci Total Environ , , 04 Feb Cited by: 1 article PMID: Glob Chang Biol , 23 7 , 16 Dec Cited by: 4 articles PMID: Zink AR , Maixner F. Gerontology , 65 6 , 10 Sep Sensors Basel , 8 5 , 23 May Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively.

Recent Activity. Recent history Saved searches. Bohleber P 1 ,. Search articles by 'Margit Schwikowski'. Schwikowski M 2 ,. Search articles by 'Martin Stocker-Waldhuber'. Stocker-Waldhuber M 1 ,. Search articles by 'Ling Fang'. Fang L 2 ,. Search articles by 'Andrea Fischer'. Fischer A 1.

Affiliations 3 authors 1. Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. Abstract Detailed knowledge of Holocene climate and glaciers dynamics is essential for sustainable development in warming mountain regions.

Free full text. Sci Rep. Published online Dec PMID: Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Pascal Bohleber, Email: ta. Corresponding author. Received Jun 9; Accepted Nov The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Go to:. Subject terms: Cryospheric science, Palaeoclimate. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Ice core analysis and glacier age constraints In March , two parallel cores were drilled 11 m to bedrock at the ice divide with nearly flat bed conditions. Figure 2. Figure 3. Table 2 Compilation of glacier maximum age constraints. Figure 4. Figure 5. Tritium and stable water isotope analysis In addition to the deep cores drilled to bedrock, three shallow cores were drilled to 3—4 m depth, at positions around the location of the deep ice core drilling.

Table 3 Tritium concentrations of three shallow cores drilled at the WSS summit in Figure 6. Aerosol-based micro-radiocarbon ice dating A total of six samples selected for micro-radiocarbon dating 55—70 cm in length was shipped via cold-storage transport to the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI.

Table 4 Micro-radiocarbon dating results. Publisher's note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Haeberli, W. The future of alpine glaciers and beyond. Oxford University Press, Oxford, Solomina ON, et al. Holocene glacier fluctuations. Exposure dating of a pronounced glacier advance at the onset of the late-Holocene in the central Tyrolean Alps.

The Alps with little ice: evidence for eight Holocene phases of reduced glacier extent in the Central Swiss Alps. Multicentury glacier fluctuations in the Swiss Alps during the Holocene. Ice-borne prehistoric finds in the Swiss Alps reflect Holocene glacier fluctuations.

Bohleber, P. Alpine ice cores as climate and environmental archives. Gabrielli P, et al.