Girls' upbringing quickly impressed on them that they were inferior to men and must cater to them; boys learned that they were entitled to demand the care and concern of women. Men regarded women as creatures apart, weaker than men in mind, body, and spirit. They were considered more sensual, less disciplined, and in need of protection from both their own impulses and the excesses of strange men.
The honor of the men of the family, easily damaged and nearly irreparable, depended on the conduct of their women. Wives, sisters, and daughters were expected to be circumspect, modest, and decorous, with their virtue above reproach. The slightest implication of unavenged impropriety, especially if made public, could irreparably destroy a family's honor. Female virginity before marriage and sexual fidelity thereafter were essential to honor's maintenance, and discovery of a transgression traditionally bound men of the family to punish the offending woman.
A girl's parents were eager for her to marry at the earliest possible age in order to forestall any loss of her virginity. After marriage, the young bride went to the home of her bridegroom's family, often in a village or neighborhood where she was a stranger and into a household where she lived under the constant and sometimes critical surveillance of her mother-in-law, a circumstance that frequently led to a great deal of friction.
In traditional society, girls were married in their early teens to men considerably their senior. A woman began to attain status and security in her husband's family only if she produced boys. Mothers accordingly favored sons, and in later life the relationship between mother and son often remained warm and intimate, whereas the father was a more distant figure.
Throughout their years of fertility, women were assumed to retain an irrepressible sexual urge, and it was only after menopause that a supposed asexuality bestowed on them a measure of freedom and some of the respect accorded senior men. Old age was assumed to commence with menopause, and the female became an azuz , or old woman. Libya Table of Contents The social setting of the family significantly affects the circumstances of a wife. Custom Search Source: U.
Library of Congress. Hatam didn't hesitate at all to say that women should be covered and subservient. He's not alone in this. Several other young men, who all looked like they could be standing in line at a club in London or Paris, all said similar things — that men run the show and women take a back seat.
None of the young men considered themselves Islamists, even through their views on women line up with the views of the Muslim Brotherhood members that NPR spoke with in September. Another man, though, took a very different tack. Husni Bey is one of Libya's most prominent and wealthy businessmen. He's in his 50s and he was one of the major financiers of the revolution. He did several stints in prison and in exile under Gadhafi, and had long been a force of opposition. Bey said he was disappointed by Jalil's speech.
He felt there was no need to inject the religious elements into a speech celebrating Libya's liberation from 42 years under Gadhafi. Bey also said that he respects Jalil and considers him a simple in a non-pejorative sense of the word man who was most likely speaking his mind. Regardless, Bey feels that it was detrimental to make those remarks. He's an advocate of a purely secular constitution that allows people the freedom to practice their religion in their own personal way, rather than mandating the practice by the state.
What's been striking here is that many of the young men interviewed over the last couple of months have outwardly seemed "western," yet have tended to express very conservative — by Western standards — views about women. But men in their 50s and 60s like Bey and other elites have argued that women need to play a larger role in the political future of Libya.
Libyan women at an Eid al-Fitr service in Tripoli in September.
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W: Of course. I love it. It looks like you had a professional interior designer. M: No. I did it all. You're right. Thanks for the advice. I'm taking it. Why did the woman feel excited? When did the man get his first full-time job? What did the man do when he got his first pay? What does the woman say she is going to?
I just got a text message from my bank, saying my salary has been deposited in my account. But I don't understand why you're so excited. It happens every month. So this is the first time I've ever been paid for a month of full-time work. I mean, it's been two decades, but I can still remember when I got my first real salary.
And I felt like it was a small fortune, even though it wasn't. And there are so many things I'd like to do with it. Maybe you could do the same. And my parents are across the country. So seeing them is impossible. I want to join. I join the gym because it's a good way to stay healthy, and it might help you build a stronger relationship with your colleagues. Oh, wait, it's your girlfriend, isn't it? I mean isn't it time for you to think about getting married? She's considering a job in England and one in Australia.
Why does the man seem to be distracted? What does the woman say the man should do? What does the man say is part of his problem? M: You definitely need advice for the important decision like this. So who have you talked to about it? What does your family think? And your adviser for your masters program?
W: What do you mean by part of the problem? She must have an opinion about all this. And her parents are pushing for the latter. Analytical skills are our ability to understand and solve problems using information we have available. These skills are extremely important for our professional, social, and intellectual lives.
What are the best ways to improve them? One way is to expand your world view. Unfortunately, this takes time. Ultimately, it will help you better evaluate information and analyze different ideas and outcomes. Travelling is a great way to expand your world view, although it can be expensive. An entertaining way of enhancing your analytical skills is to engage them by playing brain games.
These are games that challenge you to think deeply and to develop your analytical skills. These games will get you used to thinking in a certain way. As a result, they will help improve your ability to think. However, opinions vary on whether video games are effective. The general consensus is that the best ones avoid mindless violence, and instead focus on strategy and challenge us to solve problems and achieve broad goals.
Joining a debate or reading club or group is also a good idea. This provides people with the opportunity to come together and discuss ideas, literature and problems. Groups like these will help you refine your analytical skills and enable you to express yourself better. Any social group that encourages free exchange of ideas and pursuit of knowledge is beneficial.
It helps you to actively develop your analytical skills. Question In an effort to understand the matter further, I spoke with doctor Mark Beckhoff a researcher and former professor of animal behavior. Then, of course, dogs love each other. In fact, evidence shows that most dogs stay with one partner their whole lives.
In actuality, love between dogs can be even more intimate than human relationships. Once again, it seems we have a lot to learn from dogs. A piece of history has been found thanks to a boy tripping on a rare, 1. In November , Jude Sparks, now 10, was on an outing with his family near their New Mexico home, when he tripped over what he thought was a cow bone.
Now, researchers at New Mexico State University are preserving this discovery, which was identified as an ancient elephant-like animal Kyle Sparks, father of Jude, said he let his son decide what to do with the fossil. So Jude reached out to Peter Houde, a professor at new Mexico State University who had experience with the same type of fossil in the past. The next day Houde came out to see the fossil for himself.
Houde told ABC News that he was quite excited about the find. Houde and his fellow faculty members dug up the fossil in late May. They hope to return to the site with geologists for an additional search as there could be more fossils near the site. Jude and his family had been invited by the researchers to see the fossil being preserved at the university.
Questions one and two are based on the news report you have just heard. Question 1: What problem is Britain facing? Question 2: What is the cause of the problem according to the UK Health Secretary News report two A man from Libya was enjoying a walk along the sands at southport beach. Questions three and four are based on the news report you have just heard. Question 3: What does the news reports say about the Libyan man?
Question 4: What did Keith Porter say at an interview? News report three A raccoon, a small cat like animal climbed to the top of a story sky scraper early on Wednesday. Questions five to seven are based on the news report you have just heard: Question 5: What does the news report say about the raccoon, a small cat like animal? Question 6: What will the wildlife management company do with the captured raccoon? Question 7: What did one online post say?
Conversation 1 W: I have really amazing news. Thanks for the advice. Question 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard. Question 8: Why did the woman feel excited? Question 9: When did the man get his first full time job? Question What did the man do when he got his first pay? Question What does the woman say she is going to?
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard. Why does the man seem to be distracted? What does the woman say the man should do? Qucstion What does the man say is part of his problem? Passage One Analytical skills are our ability to understand and solve problems using information we have available. Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.