methods of validating questionnaires

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Methods of validating questionnaires

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Journal List Saudi J Anaesth v. Saudi J Anaesth. Siny Tsang , Colin F. Royse , 1, 2 and Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi 3, 4, 5. Colin F. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr.

E-mail: ude. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The task of developing a new questionnaire or translating an existing questionnaire into a different language might be overwhelming. Keywords: Anesthesia, development, questionnaires, translation, validation. Introduction Questionnaires or surveys are widely used in perioperative and pain medicine research to collect quantitative information from both patients and health-care professionals.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Preliminary Considerations It is crucial to identify the construct that is to be assessed with the questionnaire, as the domain of interest will determine what the questionnaire will measure. Developing a Questionnaire To construct a new questionnaire, a number of issues should be considered even before writing the questionnaire items. Identify the dimensionality of the construct Many constructs are multidimensional, meaning that they are composed of several related components.

Determine the item format Will the items be open ended or close ended? Item development A number of guidelines have been suggested for writing items. Table 1 Tips on writing questions[ 15 , 16 ]. Determine the intended length of questionnaire There is no rule of thumb for the number of items that make up a questionnaire. Review and revise initial pool of items After the initial pool of questionnaire items are written, qualified experts should review the items. Preliminary pilot testing Before conducting a pilot test of the questionnaire on the intended respondents, it is advisable to test the questionnaire items on a small sample about 30—50 [ 21 ] of respondents.

Summary So far, we highlighted the major steps that need to be undertaken when constructing a new questionnaire. Translating a Questionnaire The following section summarizes the guidelines for translating a questionnaire into a different language. Forward translation The initial translation from the original language to the target language should be made by at least two independent translators. Backward translation The initial translation should be independently back-translated i.

Expert committee Constituting an expert committee is suggested to produce the prefinal version of the translation. Preliminary pilot testing As with developing a new questionnaire, the prefinal version of the translated questionnaire should be pilot tested on a small sample about 30—50 [ 21 ] of the intended respondents.

Summary In this section, we provided a template for translating an existing questionnaire into a different language. Validating a Questionnaire Initial validation After the new or translated questionnaire items pass through preliminary pilot testing and subsequent revisions, it is time to conduct a pilot test among the intended respondents for initial validation. Reliability The reliability of a questionnaire can be considered as the consistency of the survey results. Internal consistency Internal consistency reflects the extent to which the questionnaire items are inter-correlated, or whether they are consistent in measurement of the same construct.

Inter-rater reliability For questionnaires in which multiple raters complete the same instrument for each examinee e. Validity The validity of a questionnaire is determined by analyzing whether the questionnaire measures what it is intended to measure. Content validity Content validity refers to the extent to which the items in a questionnaire are representative of the entire theoretical construct the questionnaire is designed to assess.

Example items to assess content validity include:[ 41 ] The questions were clear and easy The questions covered all the problem areas with your pain You would like the use of this questionnaire for future assessments The questionnaire lacks important questions regarding your pain Some of the questions violate your privacy. Construct validity Construct validity is the most important concept in evaluating a questionnaire that is designed to measure a construct that is not directly observable e.

Table 2 Questionnaire-related terminology[ 16 , 44 , 45 ]. Subsequent validation The process described so far defines the steps for initial validation. Sample size Guidelines for the respondent-to-item ratio ranged from [ 50 ] i. Other considerations Even though data collection using questionnaires is relatively easy, researchers should be cognizant about the necessary approvals that should be obtained prior to beginning the research project.

Conclusion In this review, we provided guidelines on how to develop, validate, and translate a questionnaire for use in perioperative and pain medicine. Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest. References 1. Boynton PM, Greenhalgh T. Selecting, designing, and developing your questionnaire. Crocker L, Algina J.

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Categories: Qualitative. I remember years ago walking the halls of the faculty offices at my university asking for help on validating a questionnaire. In fact, no one seemed able to help. Dave Collingridge is a senior research statistician for a large healthcare organization located in Utah, USA. He has published several quantitative and qualitative research articles in healthcare, psychology, and statistics. He has been a member of Methodspace for several years.

I found it strange that faculty in a psychology department were unable to tell a graduate student how to validate a survey. They are. The books contained useful information on how to create questions and what response scales to use, but they lacked start to finish instructions on how to validate.

So I took little pieces here and there from articles, books, and webpages and compiled them into own comprehensive approach to validating questionnaires. I have used this approach to publish questionnaire-based articles. It is kind of strange being called an expert on something that you did not learn from another expert.

Anyway, here is my approach in a nutshell. Maybe I will post additional blogs addressing each subject.

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Categories: Qualitative. I remember years ago walking the halls of the faculty offices at my university asking for help on validating a questionnaire. In fact, no one seemed able to help. Dave Collingridge is a senior research statistician for a large healthcare organization located in Utah, USA.

He has published several quantitative and qualitative research articles in healthcare, psychology, and statistics. He has been a member of Methodspace for several years. I found it strange that faculty in a psychology department were unable to tell a graduate student how to validate a survey. They are. The books contained useful information on how to create questions and what response scales to use, but they lacked start to finish instructions on how to validate.

So I took little pieces here and there from articles, books, and webpages and compiled them into own comprehensive approach to validating questionnaires. I have used this approach to publish questionnaire-based articles. It is kind of strange being called an expert on something that you did not learn from another expert. Anyway, here is my approach in a nutshell. Maybe I will post additional blogs addressing each subject. Hughes Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy.

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Principles and methods of validity and reliability testing of questionnaires used in social and health science researches. Niger Postgrad Med J ; Niger Postgrad Med J [serial online] [cited Apr 11]; Figure 1: Graphical presentation of possible combinations of validity and reliability Click here to view. Methods Used for Validity Test of a Questionnaire. Figure 2: Graphical representation of the subtypes of various forms of validity tests Click here to view.

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Developing Surveys: Reliability and Validity

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Step 1: Establish Face Validity. This two-step process involves having your survey reviewed by two different parties. Step 2: Run a Pilot Test. Step 3: Clean Collected Data.