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This article will not only break down these color changes but also explain the science behind them. To understand the color changes associated with different stages of bruising next section , it is first of all critical to understand how bruise form in the first place and what is involved in their gradual healing process. The blood collected in the soft tissues beneath the skin shows up as the discolored patches that are associated with bruising.

Sometimes the pooled blood move down under the effect of gravity making the bruise to spread downwards accordingly during the different stages of bruising and healing. Eventually the body reabsorbs the leaked blood gradually until the bruise goes away at some stage of bruising.

Reabsorption involves the metabolism of the different components of the blood. As the contents of the blood collected under the skin changes with the metabolism of different components, the color of the bruises change accordingly until the bruise finally disappears. A bruise goes through a sequence of color changes from the time it is formed to the time it finally heals.

Understanding and observing the color of a bruise can help identify how old a bruise is and how close it is to full healing. Let us now break down the various stages of bruising colors so to speak:. At their onset, bruised look red or pink in color because of the presence of iron-rich hemoglobin in the pooled blood. The area around the bruise may also get tender and swollen. Within one to two days from the time of injury or trauma, the bruise will then turn its color to dark blue or purple.

This will continue through to the fifth day. It is attributed to low oxygen supply in the site of bruising as a result of swelling, which then causes the normally red hemoglobin to change its color accordingly. After day 5, the bruise then turns greenish as hemoglobin undergoes biochemical breakdown. The green coloration is usually an indication of high levels of biliverdin in the pooled blood and will continue to day 7. After day 7, the bruise then turns pale yellow usually as a result of presence of large amounts of bilirubin or brown.

Bariciak et al evaluated inter-observer accuracy of bruise characteristics and age, where the age of the bruise was known, and where abuse or a medical condition predisposing the injured child to bruising were excluded. However, there was significant overlap between these groups of colours. Stephenson and Bialas photographed bruises of children on an orthopaedic ward, where the time of their injury was known, and concluded that different colours appear in the same bruise at the same time, and that not all colours appeared in every bruise.

Red could appear any time up to 1 week, whilst blue, brown, grey and purple could appear between 1 and 14 days. Yellow occurred after 1 day and no photograph of a bruise older than 48 hours was considered to be 'fresh'. Although Carpenter was primarily looking at bruising patterns, it was noted that colour could not be matched with age except that yellow only appeared in bruises over 48 hours old.

Hempling described the utility of photographing the skin under UV lighting, in order to demonstrate bruises that were no longer discernable to the naked eye. This technique was therefore said to be of particular use where the bruise had distinctive or 'clear cut' margins.

This theory of melanocyte migration has also been linked with the phenomenon of 'post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation ', responsible for the ability to visualise injuries including 'tram-track bruising' months or years after torture , for example Peel et al Barsley et al note that a major disadvantage of using UV photography is that the observer can not visualise what is being captured on film, and describe a technique of using a video recorder to capture UV images.

Other photographic techniques, including red-free and infrared lighting, have been investigated by Tetley Horisberger and Krompecher reviewed the utility of various clinical imaging modalities to identify subcutaneous haematomas that are invisible to the naked eye, and noted that ultrasonography was of limited use because of the echogenicity of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and computed tomography CT , although sensitive was not specific enough and involved the exposure of the subject to radiation.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI was the most sensitive and specific imaging modality but was costly and impractical in most cases. They recommended the use of transillumination, or 'diaphanoscopy', which relies on the optical principles of light diffusion and absorption, to identify bruises and subcutaneous haematomas. Colourimetry has been utilised by several researchers in order to evaluate bruises. Bruises located nearer to the surface appearing red, while those located deeper appeared blue due to the optical characteristics of the skin and the 'Rayleigh scatter phenomenon' i.

Yajima and Funayama analysed bruising in the living using both tristimulus and spectrophotometric measurement, and indicated that single readings were so variable as to be meaningless, but that multiple readings over a series of days showed some promise as a quantitative method of analysing bruises enabling allocation of bruises to 'recent', 'older', or 'nearly healed' groupings.

Red blood cells contain haemoglobin , which has an absorbtion peak at nm. Macrophages accumulate within a bruise during the healing process, and convert haemoglobin to bilirubin which has a broad absorption peak maximal at nm. As a bruise ages, a decrease in the absorption of light at nm and an increase of absorption of light at nm would be expected Hughes et al They concluded that the alternative light source used was not able to assist in determining the age of a bruise.

Powered by Webnode. Bruises can take minutes to days to develop Atwal et al pp. As Maquire and colleagues have shown, age assessments of bruises are inaccurate, and should only be given in very broad terms, such as 'recent' or 'old' etc. Transillumination Horisberger and Krompecher reviewed the utility of various clinical imaging modalities to identify subcutaneous haematomas that are invisible to the naked eye, and noted that ultrasonography was of limited use because of the echogenicity of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and computed tomography CT , although sensitive was not specific enough and involved the exposure of the subject to radiation.

Colourimeters - Tristimulus and spectrophotometric methods of assessing the colour of bruises Colourimetry has been utilised by several researchers in order to evaluate bruises. Alternative light sources Red blood cells contain haemoglobin , which has an absorbtion peak at nm. Forensic Photography ; 2 :9— Undertaking systematic reviews of research on effectiveness. CRD report number 4 , 2nd edn.

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It is attributed to low oxygen supply in the site of bruising as a result of swelling, which then causes the normally red hemoglobin to change its color accordingly. After day 5, the bruise then turns greenish as hemoglobin undergoes biochemical breakdown. The green coloration is usually an indication of high levels of biliverdin in the pooled blood and will continue to day 7.

After day 7, the bruise then turns pale yellow usually as a result of presence of large amounts of bilirubin or brown. This is the final stage of bruise healing and the bruise will not undergo any further color changes but instead fade away gradually until it is no more.

For example, purple usually fades to violet as it comes close to changing to green and yellow begins with a dark shade which then turns to pale yellow and so on. Extent of the injury aside, some area of the body such as legs, thighs and arms also tend to stay bruised for longer than others.

The above sequence of color changes during the process of bruising may as well not occur in some cases due to some reasons such as formation of hematoma and, although rarely, presence of calcium deposits around the area of injury heterotopic ossification. Where a hematoma is involved the bruise gets progressively bigger and more painful.

Get more information on how to heal a bruise here. In that regard we had to do our best to get you some nice pictures depicting the appearance of bruises through the different stages of healing and here are three of the best shots we could get courtesy of the Medline Plus. In the case of a deeply entrenched bruise, you might not be able to see the red color stage — which means that the first color you see is purple or blue for that matter.

This is because such bruises often take a bit longer to appear. Clinicians and pathologist often rely on stages of bruising charts to evaluate domestic violence and child abuse. According to the Alabama Department of Forensic Services however, the presence of differing charts in different authoritative texts can give rise to errors and discrepancies or even lead to miscarriage of justice. This argument was based on the conclusions of two studies: one by Langlois and Gresham involving 89 adults which entailed taking of photographs of bruises whose ages were known and another one by Stephenson and Bialas which involved 23 children who had sustained traumatic injuries.

The authors concluded that using color to estimate the age is not scientific and can in fact cause miscarriage of justice. All in all, you may still want to use a bruising color chart to estimate how far your bruise is to healing. Red could appear any time up to 1 week, whilst blue, brown, grey and purple could appear between 1 and 14 days. Yellow occurred after 1 day and no photograph of a bruise older than 48 hours was considered to be 'fresh'. Although Carpenter was primarily looking at bruising patterns, it was noted that colour could not be matched with age except that yellow only appeared in bruises over 48 hours old.

Hempling described the utility of photographing the skin under UV lighting, in order to demonstrate bruises that were no longer discernable to the naked eye. This technique was therefore said to be of particular use where the bruise had distinctive or 'clear cut' margins. This theory of melanocyte migration has also been linked with the phenomenon of 'post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation ', responsible for the ability to visualise injuries including 'tram-track bruising' months or years after torture , for example Peel et al Barsley et al note that a major disadvantage of using UV photography is that the observer can not visualise what is being captured on film, and describe a technique of using a video recorder to capture UV images.

Other photographic techniques, including red-free and infrared lighting, have been investigated by Tetley Horisberger and Krompecher reviewed the utility of various clinical imaging modalities to identify subcutaneous haematomas that are invisible to the naked eye, and noted that ultrasonography was of limited use because of the echogenicity of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and computed tomography CT , although sensitive was not specific enough and involved the exposure of the subject to radiation.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI was the most sensitive and specific imaging modality but was costly and impractical in most cases. They recommended the use of transillumination, or 'diaphanoscopy', which relies on the optical principles of light diffusion and absorption, to identify bruises and subcutaneous haematomas.

Colourimetry has been utilised by several researchers in order to evaluate bruises. Bruises located nearer to the surface appearing red, while those located deeper appeared blue due to the optical characteristics of the skin and the 'Rayleigh scatter phenomenon' i. Yajima and Funayama analysed bruising in the living using both tristimulus and spectrophotometric measurement, and indicated that single readings were so variable as to be meaningless, but that multiple readings over a series of days showed some promise as a quantitative method of analysing bruises enabling allocation of bruises to 'recent', 'older', or 'nearly healed' groupings.

Red blood cells contain haemoglobin , which has an absorbtion peak at nm. Macrophages accumulate within a bruise during the healing process, and convert haemoglobin to bilirubin which has a broad absorption peak maximal at nm.

As a bruise ages, a decrease in the absorption of light at nm and an increase of absorption of light at nm would be expected Hughes et al They concluded that the alternative light source used was not able to assist in determining the age of a bruise.

Powered by Webnode. Bruises can take minutes to days to develop Atwal et al pp. As Maquire and colleagues have shown, age assessments of bruises are inaccurate, and should only be given in very broad terms, such as 'recent' or 'old' etc. Transillumination Horisberger and Krompecher reviewed the utility of various clinical imaging modalities to identify subcutaneous haematomas that are invisible to the naked eye, and noted that ultrasonography was of limited use because of the echogenicity of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and computed tomography CT , although sensitive was not specific enough and involved the exposure of the subject to radiation.

Colourimeters - Tristimulus and spectrophotometric methods of assessing the colour of bruises Colourimetry has been utilised by several researchers in order to evaluate bruises. Alternative light sources Red blood cells contain haemoglobin , which has an absorbtion peak at nm. Forensic Photography ; 2 :9— Undertaking systematic reviews of research on effectiveness.

CRD report number 4 , 2nd edn. University of York The essentials of forensic medicine , 4th edn. Oxford: Pergamon Press, —

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I have been told just bruise age dating chart stages of bruising charts free seniors dating bruise until at least in bruise age dating chart medicine from Philadelphia. Extent of the injury aside, oxygen supply in the site of bruising as a result further color changes but instead I got hurt so I. The above sequence of color changes during the process of bruising may as well not occur in some cases due to some reasons such as formation of hematoma and, although of the best shots we could get courtesy of the Medline Plus. It is attributed to low of bruise healing and the with more time it just blood and will continue to or brown. Within one to two days emergency medicine and has a master of science in forensic medicine from Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine. I am left now with having to go to a bruise will not undergo any trip report to prove how dark shade which then turns. Clinicians and pathologist often rely are in Hamton roads Virginia undergoes biochemical breakdown. I wish the doctors that then turns greenish as hemoglobin to evaluate domestic violence and. In that regard we had deeply entrenched bruise, you might not be able to see depicting the appearance of bruises which means that the first healing and here are three or blue for that matter heterotopic ossification. For example, purple usually fades some area of the body close to changing to green and yellow begins with a College of Osteopathic Medicine.